Jallianwala Scandal of Gujarat -Praful Shah
The culmination of Motilal Tejawat’s agitation claimed the lives of many Bhils-tribals. What are the supporters of this movement steadfast? Why did you swear to stand firm in one movement? To know the answer to these questions, we have to go back in time.
The British diplomacy had a major contribution in the exploitation of the Bhils-tribals. Before the advent of Dholias, the relationship between the ruler, feudal lords, peasants and subjects in Rajasthan was based on goodwill and cooperation, but the future rulers of the princely states admitted to Mayo College in the hope of educating the princes and making them speak fluent English. Rather than imparting education, this involved inculcating them in a materialistic western lifestyle and a life full of indulgences. If the future king remained immersed in the Iyashi, he would not be able to do the welfare of the people and in the event of a possible rebellion of the people or their king, the king would have to look at the British.
Let us understand the system before the arrival of the British. The area under the direct possession of the ruler was considered ‘Khalsa land’. Then comes the area under the control of feudal lords, feudal lords etc. which is considered as ‘Jagir Bhoomi’. The feudal lords had complete authority over the people living on the land of their territory. Taxes other than land-tax were also collected from farmers, which were called ‘lagat’ in the local parlance. He also had to do ‘begar’ (the practice of getting grain in return for work).
But with the arrival of the British, the earlier humanitarian and co-operative attitude of the feudal lords came to an end. Local kings, feudal lords and feudal lords used to waive farmers’ taxes when threatened by natural calamities like famine, but the British adopted a repressive policy of coercive tax collection. Due to this, the rulers, feudal lords created a gap between the feudal lords and the people, bitterness increased.
Over time, the influence of the British in the affairs of the native princely states increased. The presence of the British averted the threat of outside invasion for the king-vassals. This peace was used to oppress the Iyashi and the people. Due to this, their cost of living increased, which began to be eroded by the oppression of the people. A ransom note to pay the British in Choga. So the Khandia king started putting all the pressure on the innocent, illiterate and gullible people. There was no immediate opposition to this atrocity and exploitation, but the seeds of a movement were sown unknowingly, which would one day grow into giant banyan trees through the blood, tears and sweat of the innocent. No political consciousness emerges overnight, it requires long penance and practice. Here came the inhuman torture and exploitation of the rulers as a substitute for penance and sadhana.
In Rajasthan S. Between 1913 and 1922 Vijaysinh Pathik’s Bijaulian Peasant Movement, Begu Movement in 1921, Krilak Movement in Marwar, Farmer Movement in Shekhawati and Sikar, Bundi Peasant Movement and Alwar Peasant Movement came up, which were crushed.
Apart from this, the Bhils were also responding to atrocities and exploitation with agitation. A very deep research reveals that the very naive and honest Bhil caste is one of the oldest castes in India. There are different folklores about the origin of Bhils. According to the author of Banabhata, the word ‘Bhil’ is used in ancient Sanskrit and Apabhramsa-sahitya. It is claimed that the word ‘Bhil’ was first used in ‘Kathasaritsagar’. According to some scholars the word ‘Bhil’ is derived from the word ‘Bhilla’. Some believe that the Bhils originated from Lord Shankar. English Colonel Tod described the Bhils as ‘forest sons’ and ‘wild children’.
Just one example of how much Bhils have contributed in Rajasthan. Majority of the soldiers in the army of the great warrior Maharana Pratap were Bhils, who faced the Mughals with great bravery. These people are so gullible forever
Economically backward. The Bhils, who wielded a weapon like a quiver, were very enterprising and extremely loyal. These people, who adhere strictly to tradition and customs, have not tolerated the violation of their belief-tradition in peace. For this, they did not hesitate to take up arms or take lives. It was for this reason that he fought against the Marathas in the eighteenth century. So in the 19th century, they fought against the British.
But the cunning British played a new game. Col Tod’s Crooked Policy S. An agreement was signed between the British and the Bhils on 12th May 1825. This included an assurance from the Bhils that they would not harbor or support any thief, dacoit or enemy of the British government and would abide by the laws and regulations of East India.
But no fraud can keep one party in the dark forever. The great social reformer Govindguru took the lead in the social and moral upliftment of the Bhils. He led the Bhagat movement, which was brutally crushed. But that root was not removed from the mind of the Bhils. Motilal Tejawat’s ‘Eki’ movement for the Bhils took shape from the same soil.